Wolbachia[ edit ] Mediterranean flour moths are infected by Wolbachia , a genus of bacteria that affects the reproduction of its host species. These maternally-inherited bacteria cause cytoplasmic incompatibility in E. Infected males produce sperm that is only compatible with eggs from infected females, resulting in a decrease in fitness for uninfected females. Different strains of Wolbachia cause different levels of cytoplasmic incompatibility.
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Int J Mol Sci. Published online Nov Find articles by Edson dos A. Find articles by Daniele Y. Abstract Insect pests have caused economic losses valued at billions of dollars in agricultural production.
Anagasta kuehniella Zeller , the Mediterranean flour moth, is of major economic importance as a flour and grain feeder and is often a severe pest in flourmills.
This study provides a suitable route for the direct preparation of thiosulfonates 2 and 3 from thiols, under mild conditions, with good yields; these thiosulfonates were tested for their regulatory effect on insect growth. The chronic ingestion of thiosulfonates resulted in a significant reduction in larval survival and weight. In addition, the tryptic activity of larvae was sensitive to these thiosulfonates.
Results suggest that thiosulfonates 2 and 3 have a potential antimetabolic effect when ingested by A. These thiosulfonates were toxic for A. Keywords: insect, pests insecticidal activity, growth retardation, thiosulfonates 1. Among these insects, Anagasta kuehniella Zeller , the Mediterranean flour moth, is found worldwide and is of major economic importance as a flour and grain feeder; this species is often a severe pest in flourmills [ 3 ] and, particularly in stored grains such as fruits and nuts.
Few stored and dried vegetable products are safe from this small and voracious moth: nuts, fruits, chocolates, biscuits, cakes, jellies, and candies are also consumed by it [ 4 ].
Controlling these insects generally requires the use of chemical insecticides, such as malathion, pirimiphos-methyl, chlorpyrifos-methyl, pyrethrum, deltamethrin, methoprene and the fumigant, phosphine, which are all toxic to humans and domestic animals and harmful to the environment [ 5 ]. However, consumer concern is increasing regarding insecticide residues in processed cereal products, the occurrence of insecticide-resistant insect strains and the precautions necessary for this work [ 6 ].
The arylthiosulfonates 1, 2 and 3 have shown valuable biological activities, such as cytotoxic [ 7 ] and fungicide [ 8 , 9 ] abilities. This class of thiosulfonates displays insecticidal activity in azuki bean weevils and rice stem borer larvae [ 10 , 11 ], but the insecticidal activity of these thiosulfonates for A. The present study deals with two new methods for the synthesis of thiosulfonates and examines the effect of thiosulfonates 2 and 3 on the development and survival of A.
We also examined the effects of the thiosulfonates on nutritional indices and on soluble trypsin endoproteases, the major enzymes involved in protein digestion.
Results and Discussion 2. Experimental Methods of Chemistry Reactions for the preparation of thiosulfonates generally require the coupling of thiols with arylsulfonic [ 12 ], arylsulfinic acids [ 13 ] or sulfonyl chlorides [ 14 ]. Thiosulfonates can also be prepared by oxidation of disulfides [ 15 ]. However, few reactions have reported their preparation from thiols in good yields [ 16 , 17 ]; for such reactions, the production of dissulfides and sulfonodithioic O-acid can also occur [ 18 ].
Table 1 Reactions of thiols for the formation of thiosulfonates with two catalysts.
Mediterranean flour moth
Int J Mol Sci. Published online Nov Find articles by Edson dos A. Find articles by Daniele Y. Abstract Insect pests have caused economic losses valued at billions of dollars in agricultural production. Anagasta kuehniella Zeller , the Mediterranean flour moth, is of major economic importance as a flour and grain feeder and is often a severe pest in flourmills.
Top of page Mating A virgin or insufficiently fertilized female adopts the calling position, extending her ovipositor and raising her abdomen. This position, which enables her to emit pheromones, can be taken up again over several days Daumal, Mating takes place within a few seconds Traynier, , ; Traynier and Wright, , and usually lasts for hours after dusk, but may continue for longer than this. Various abiotic factors may have caused sterility in the males, even if one or more spermatophores has been emitted Raichoudhury, ; Tavares and Daumal, ; Daumal, The biotic potential of the females is not affected by the same factors. When mating is complete the female no longer adopts the calling position, because a successful mating enables her to fulfil her entire reproductive potential, hours after or without separation of the partners.