By Jad Qandour 2 min read What a mouthful! In short, anaphoric and cataphoric references are emphatic styles of sentence structure taught at C1 — C2 level. They are used to insert emphasis into the first clause of a statement. It was shocking. Three tech giants filed for bankruptcy. The subject in the second clause is unspecified.
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What is anaphoric reference? Anaphoric reference occurs when a word or phrase refers to something mentioned earlier in the discourse. He was annoyed because it was closed. He refers to Michael. Anaphoric reference often makes use of the definite article the, because one of the functions of the definite article is to indicate that something has already been mentioned. The object felt heavy in his hands.
Inside it was the key to his future. Both the object and it refer back to a small box in the first sentence. What is cataphoric reference? Cataphoric reference occurs when a word or phrase refers to something mentioned later in the discourse.
Her refers to my mother. The book was there on the table. The book refers to Moby Dick. What is exophoric reference? Exophoric reference occurs when a word or phrase refers to something outside the discourse. It also refers to something that both speakers know about perhaps the dinner. The use of exophoric reference requires some shared knowledge between two speakers, or between writer and reader s.
Richard Nordquist is professor emeritus of rhetoric and English at Georgia Southern University and the author of several university-level grammar and composition textbooks. Richard Nordquist Updated June 19, In English grammar , cataphora is the use of a pronoun or other linguistic unit to refer ahead to another word in a sentence i. Adjective: cataphoric. Cataphora in English Grammar The word that gets its meaning from a subsequent word or phrase is called a cataphor. The subsequent word or phrase is called the antecedent , referent, or head. Anaphora vs.
Cataphora in English Grammar
Contact Anaphoric, Cataphoric, Exophoric Words The underlined reference words in the two paragraphs below are either "anaphoric" referring upward to previously mentioned words , "cataphoric" referring downward to subsequent words , or "exophoric" referring to something outside the text. Identify whether the reference words are anaphoric, cataphoric, or exophoric by selecting your choice in the pull-down menu next to each item. After you make your selection, you will receive feedback at the bottom of the page. For many years, East German people devised 1creative ways to sneak out of East Germany.
Cataphoric vs Anaphoric References
Nomenclature and examples[ edit ] The term anaphora is actually used in two ways. In a broad sense, it denotes the act of referring. Any time a given expression e. In a second, narrower sense, the term anaphora denotes the act of referring backwards in a dialog or text, such as referring to the left when an anaphor points to its left toward its antecedent in languages that are written from left to right. A proform is a cataphor when it points to its right toward its postcedent.