Gardazilkree The following questions were posed: The restaurant, however, also owes much of its architectural vocabulary to the Polynesian-inspired architectures Fig. The authenticity of an imagined national character was thus established by quoting and referencing assumed essential and organic bonds. The window sashes commonly have capiz shell panes and can be opened wide or closed for privacy or in stormy weather. We are working to produce the complete set of core curriculum titles for the wwinand track, and will soon publish the complete set of STEM titles. Philippine Quarterly of Culture and Society Vol. The Troubles They Have Seen: And what are the implications of these strategies in the debates concerning the production of architecture and identity?

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Architecture Vernacularization in Philippine Modern Architecture part 1 How and why was the idea of the vernacular used in articulating Philippine national identity in modern architecture?

April 20, Written by Edson Cabalfin During the last century, modern architecture has been emblematically enmeshed with discourses of nationalism as it has been used as symbols of new nations.

By being both an agent and a product of nationalism, we can come to understand architecture not merely as a finished product that we see and experience, but more importantly recognize it as an active participant in the formation of our consciousness as national subjects.

Vernacularization is understood in this case as a general approach of localizing architecture by alluding to indigenous social, cultural, political and historical contexts. Through vernacularization, a foreign concept is made understandable to the local audience by referring to familiar local materials and ideas. Here, I have tried to inspect the methods and means of using an idea of vernacular by different agents. The following questions were posed: How and why was the idea of the vernacular used in articulating Philippine national identity in modern architecture?

What were the similarities and differences of concepts of vernacularization in architecture by different agents throughout twentieth century Philippines? And, what are the implications of these strategies in the debates of the production of architecture and identity?

Gerard Lico Pre American colonialism and architecture Americans during the first half of the twentieth century used urban planning as a means of establishing colonial control in the Philippines.

Daniel Burnham, the famed architect and planner who designed Washington DC, Chicago and San Francisco, was asked to redesign the capital city of Manila in After Burnham finished the plan, the substantiation of the new urban order was passed on to William Parsons, who was hired as the Chief Consulting Architect of the Philippine Bureau of Public Works.

For the official structures he focused on Neo-classical structures that followed Greco-Roman models. Generally, these hybridized civic buildings represented modernity, progress and democracy—a constant reminder of the supposed benevolence of the American colonial rule. His responses were very practical. Among the notable structures that use vernacularization during this time were inspired by the Art Deco style. The Art Deco style, which was popular in Europe in the early part of the twentieth century, emphasized classical composition and at the same time used stylized and abstracted ornamental forms.

Focusing on Philippine flora and fauna, Arellano rendered the classical building in tropical motifs such as bananas, mangoes, birds-of-paradise flowers and bamboo. Thus, Filipino designers at this time were consciously appropriating imagery and icons that they believed were representative of Philippine culture.

At that time, being Filipino meant having a distinct and essential national culture different from other world cultures. During the s and the s, under the rule of the Marcoses, architecture was seen as an avenue for Filipino-ness.

First Lady Imelda Marcos, for example, advocated a return to supposedly folk cultures as means of achieving a genuine national Filipino identity. Experimentation with the national style usually highlighted literal reinterpretations of forms from indigenous architecture. Roof forms, because of their high visibility, were usually the first to be borrowed. These two buildings were inspired from the Ifugao fale, a one-room house found in the Mountain Provinces that features a steep roof.

National Arts Center in Mt. Locsin Indigenous architectural details and ornaments are also sources of inspiration. The gable horn called tajuk pasung found in Tausug houses in the southern part of the Philippines became a popular motif during the s. These gable roof extensions, sometimes alluding to the horns of water buffaloes, served as protective symbols common among Austronesian and Southeast Asian cultures. The restaurant, however, also owes much of its architectural vocabulary to the Polynesian-inspired architecture that was popular in the United States during the s.

The vernacular is also appropriated through literal interpretations of symbols or objects. The hat, made of indigenous materials, was equated in this instance with Filipino industriousness.

In this particular translation, the grass hat was transformed into metal and raised on stilts, as if hovering above the ground. The Coconut Palace, as its name suggests, explores and exploits the various applications of materials derived from the coconut tree.

The roof forms probably took its cue from the houses of the Isneg people in the northern part of the Philippines, which made use of overlapping split bamboo nodes. Still another source of inspiration is derived from indigenous geography and geology.

The visual imagery is uncanny. The office building is characteristically terraced in its form with plants surrounding the windows: it was a reinterpretation of Philippine land forms in glass, steel and concrete.

Other approaches of vernacularization avoid literal interpretations of forms and instead extract abstract concepts. For example, Leandro Locsin designed the Cultural Center of the Philippines with the floating masses concept in mind. Thesis, National University of Singapore, Thesis, University of Cincinnati,


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