Sommaire The thermodynamics of the atmosphere is the subject of several chapters in most textbooks on dynamic meteorology, but there is no work in English to give the subject a specific and more extensive treatment. In writing the present textbook, we have tried to fill this rather remarkable gap in the literature related to atmospheric sciences. Our aim has been to provide students of meteorology with a book that can playa role similar to the textbooks on chemical thermodynamics for the chemists. This implies a previous knowledge of general thermodynamics, such as students acquire in general physics courses; therefore, although the basic principles are reviewed in the first four chapters , they are only briefly discussed, and emphasis is laid on those topics that will be useful in later chapters, through their application to atmospheric problems. Review of Basic Concepts and Systems of Units. Composition and State of a System.

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Sommaire The thermodynamics of the atmosphere is the subject of several chapters in most textbooks on dynamic meteorology, but there is no work in English to give the subject a specific and more extensive treatment. In writing the present textbook, we have tried to fill this rather remarkable gap in the literature related to atmospheric sciences.

Our aim has been to provide students of meteorology with a book that can playa role similar to the textbooks on chemical thermodynamics for the chemists. This implies a previous knowledge of general thermodynamics, such as students acquire in general physics courses; therefore, although the basic principles are reviewed in the first four chapters , they are only briefly discussed, and emphasis is laid on those topics that will be useful in later chapters, through their application to atmospheric problems.

Review of Basic Concepts and Systems of Units. Composition and State of a System. Temperature Scales. Systems of Units. Work of Expansion. Modifications and Processes. State Variables and State Functions. Equation of State. Equation of State for Gases. Mixture of Ideal Gases. Atmospheric Air Composition. The First Principle of Thermodynamics. Internal Energy. The First Principle. Expressions of Q. Heat Capacities. Calculation of Internal Energy and Enthalpy. Latent Heats of Pure Substances. Adiabatic Processes in Ideal Gases.

Potential Temperature. Polytropic Processes. The Second Principle of Thermodynamics. The Entropy. Thermodynamic Scale of Absolute Temperature. Formulations of the Second Principle. Thermodynamic Potentials. Equilibrium Conditions and the Sense of Natural Processes. Calculation of Entropy. Thermodynamic Equations of State. Thermodynamic Functions of Ideal Gases. Entropy of Mixing for Ideal Gases.

Water-Air Systems. Heterogeneous Systems. Fundamental Equations for Open Systems. Equations for the Heterogeneous System. Internal Equilibrium. Summary of Basic Formulas for Heterogeneous Systems. Number of Independent Variables. Phase-Transition Equilibria for Water. Thermodynamic Surface for Water Substance.

Clausius-Clapeyron Equation. Water Vapor and Moist Air. Humidity Variables. Heat Capacities of Moist Air. Moist Air Adiabats. Aerological Diagrams. Purpose of Aerological Diagrams and Selection of Coordinates.

Clapeyron Diagram. Curves for Saturated Adiabatic Expansion. Relative Orientation of Fundamental Lines. Emagram or Neuhoff Diagram. Refsdal Diagram. Area Equivalence. Summary of Diagrams.

Determination of Mixing Ratio from the Relative Humidity. Area Computation and Energy Integrals. Thermodynamic Processes in the Atmosphere. Isobaric Cooling. Dew and Frost Points. Condensation in the Atmosphere by Isobaric Cooling. Adiabatic Isobaric Isenthalpic Processes. Equivalent and Wet-Bulb Temperatures. Adiabatic Isobaric Mixing with Condensation. Adiabatic Expansion in the Atmosphere. Saturation of Air by Adiabatic Ascent. Reversible Saturated Adiabatic Process. Pseudoadiabatic Process.

Effect of Freezing in a Cloud. Vertical Mixing. Summary of Temperature and Humidity Parameters. Conservative Properties. Atmospheric Statics. The Geopotential Field. The Hydrostatic Equation. Equipotential and Isobaric Surfaces. Dynamic and Geopotential Height. Thermal Gradients. Constant-Lapse-Rate Atmospheres. Atmosphere of Homogeneous Density.

Dry-Adiabatic Atmosphere. Isothermal Atmosphere. Standard Atmosphere. Integration of the Hydrostatic Equation. Vertical Stability. The Parcel Method. Stability Criteria. The Lapse Rates of the Parcel and of the Environment.

Stability Criteria for Adiabatic Processes. Conditional Instability. Oscillations in a Stable Layer. The Layer Method for Analyzing Stability. Potential or Convective Instability. Radiative Processes and Their Thermodynamic Consequences. Maximum Rate of Precipitation. Internal and Potential Energy of the Atmosphere.

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## Atmospheric thermodynamics

In writing the present textbook, we have tried to fiII this rather remarkable gap in the literature related to atmospheric sciences. Our aim has been to provide students of meteorology with a book that can play a role similar to the textbooks on chemical thermodynamics for the chemists. This implies a previous knowledge of general thermodynamics, such as students acquire in general physics courses; therefore, although the basic principles are reviewed in the urst four chapters , they are only briefly discussed, and emphasis is laid on those topics that wilI be useful in later chapters, through their application to atmospheric problems. No attempt has been made to introduce the thermodynamics ofirreversible processes; on the other hand, consideration of heterogeneous and open homogeneous systems permits a rigorous formulation of the thermodynamic functions of c10uds exclusive of any consideration of microphysical effects and a better understanding of the approx imations usually implicit in practical applications.

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## Atmospheric Thermodynamics

Sommaire The thermodynamics of the atmosphere is the subject of several chapters in most textbooks on dynamic meteorology, but there is no work in English to give the subject a specific and more extensive treatment. In writing the present textbook, we have tried to fill this rather remarkable gap in the literature related to atmospheric sciences. Our aim has been to provide students of meteorology with a book that can playa role similar to the textbooks on chemical thermodynamics for the chemists. This implies a previous knowledge of general thermodynamics, such as students acquire in general physics courses; therefore, although the basic principles are reviewed in the first four chapters , they are only briefly discussed, and emphasis is laid on those topics that will be useful in later chapters, through their application to atmospheric problems. Review of Basic Concepts and Systems of Units. The First Principle of Thermodynamics. The second Principle of Thermodynamics.

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