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Students learn how DNA banding patterns can reveal the history and heritage of an individual, whether whale or human, while observing DNA separation in real time. Starting with a small sample of DNA, scientists can produce billions of copies of a specific fragment quickly and affordably. The same procedure has been used to create "designer proteins" which have led to the explosion of new health treatments, agricultural applications, and environmental solutions.
Bacteria transformed with pGLO plasmid are selected by ampicillin resistance; when induced to express GFP, the bugs glow fluorescent green under UV light. How It Works With this activity, students analyze the growth of bacteria on various media and examine the roles of external and internal factors in gene regulation. Gene expression in all organisms is carefully regulated to allow adaptation to differing conditions and to prevent wasteful production of proteins.
Bacterial genes encoding the enzymes needed to metabolize the simple sugar arabinose are a perfect example. The genes are activated only when arabinose is present in the environment. When bacteria transformed with pGLO plasmid are grown in the presence of arabinose, the GFP gene switches on, causing the bacteria to express GFP and fluoresce brilliant green. This activity provides in-depth explanations about how restriction enzymes cut DNA and how electrophoresis can be used to separate and visualize DNA fragments.
Features and Benefits Aligns with AP Biology Lab 6 With this kit, students are able to: Study DNA restriction enzyme function Use electrophoresis to separate DNA fragments Construct standard curves from their data and make precise determinations of DNA fragment sizes Applications and Uses By visualizing the effect of three restriction enzymes on four identical samples of double-stranded lambda virus DNA, students learn that different restriction enzymes recognize and cut different DNA sequences.
Optional extension exercises guide students through the procedure of DNA fragment size determination by constructing a standard curve using their own gel data.
Students can then use the standard curve to determine the sizes of the various DNA fragments in their samples. More Information Two—session laboratory activity, 45 min per session Provides sufficient materials for eight student workstations, up to four students per workstation For more information and to download the complete lab manual, go to Bio-Rad Forensic DNA Fingerprinting Kit DNA evidence assists in criminal, missing persons, mass disaster, and paternity cases.
It can be used to identify a perpetrator or exonerate the innocent. Using real DNA as evidence, your students play the role of crime scene investigator to figure out for themselves "Who done it? One DNA sample has been collected from a "crime scene" and five samples have been obtained from various "suspects. Using their own results, students test the Hardy—Weinberg equilibrium theory within their classroom population, then go online to compare their classroom results to genetic data of populations worldwide.
Features and Benefits Aligns with AP Biology Lab 9 Introduces PCR and applies it to population genetics With this kit, students are able to: Directly measure human diversity at the molecular level Extract and amplify genomic DNA from their own samples Compare results to online data Background Information In this activity students hunt for a specific Alu repeat a base pair repetitive sequence of DNA within a specific region called PV92 on chromosome Over evolutionary time, up to 1 million copies of the Alu repeat have become randomly inserted throughout the human genome.
Some of us carry an Alu insertion and some of us do not. These subtle variations in our DNA are evidence of our ancestry and form the basis of personal identification via DNA fingerprinting. As a control for the integrity of the plant DNA extracted from food, PCR is used to amplify a section of the photosystem II chloroplast gene that is common to most higher plants. Students engage in a complete investigation in which they gather sample food items from the grocery store, extract DNA from the samples, amplify the DNA using polymerase chain reaction PCR , and use agarose gel electrophoresis to identify the presence or absence of amplified GMO sequences.
Features and Benefits The kit allows a guided-inquiry approach. Students conduct sophisticated scientific procedures employing multiple levels of controls that allow them to assess the validity of their results. Did our PCR work as expected? Do we have GM content? More Information Three-session laboratory activity, 45 min per session Provides sufficient materials for eight student workstations, up to four students per workstation For more information and to download the complete lab manual, go to.
GMO Investigator Real-Time PCR Starter Kit