This paradigm is believed to separate verbal memory into distinct processes. The adult SRT involves reading the subject a list of 12 unrelated words and then having the subject immediately recall as many of these 12 words as possible. Every trial after the first involves selectively presenting only those words in which the subject did not recall on the immediately preceding trial. The selective reminding trials proceed in this manner until the subject is able to correctly recall all 12 words on three consecutive trials, or until 12 trials have been completed. Through assessing the recall of items that are not presented on a given trial, this test is believed to distinguish between retrieval from long-term storage LTS and short-term recall STR. In theory, as
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It allows us to remember who we are, what we did in the past and what we want to do in the near and far future. Furthermore, the memory processes of retention, recall and recognition are fundamental to learning.
Even in neurotypical individuals, simply growing older can impair memory, which is known as age-associated memory impairment Crook et al. Given its importance for everyday life and its vulnerability to ageing and disease, memory is a key element in neuropsychological assessment Lezak et al.
Consequently, several measures have been developed to assess different aspects of memory, including episodic memory, visuospatial memory, autobiographical memory and verbal memory for a review, see Lezak et al. Verbal memory refers to the retention, recall and recognition of language-based material Vanderploeg et al.
The AVLT is a word-list learning test where a list of 15 unrelated items list A is read aloud during five consecutive trials. Immediate recall of this list follows each presentation. After the fifth trial, an interference list of 15 unrelated items list B is presented. Participants are then asked to recall list B prior to recalling list A.
After a delay of 20 minutes, participants are asked once more to recall list A as well as to complete a recognition test. During the recognition test, participants have to distinguish items from list A from distractors items from list B and items semantically or phonologically related to items from lists A or B. The AVLT is considered a conventional assessment of verbal memory due to the continuous presentation of items. The disadvantage of continuous presentation is that differentiation between retrieval from the short and long term memory is not possible Lezak et al.
In contrast to the AVLT and other conventional verbal memory measures using continuous presentation, the Buschke selective reminding test Buschke, uses selective presentation of the to be remembered items. The SRT is a word-list learning test where 12 unrelated items are presented during a maximum of 12 consecutive trials.
Instead of presenting all the items simultaneously on each trial i. Contrary to continuous presentation, selective presentation facilitates the distinction between short and long term retrieval. Since not all items are necessarily presented at the beginning of each trial, participants can recall items without being reminded of them at the beginning of the trial.
While recall without reminding indicates retrieval from the long term memory, recall after reminding is assumed to tap onto short term memory. The ability to differentiate between short and long term retrieval is beneficial for several reasons. For instance, an abnormally high dependence on short term memory during recall is indicative of an impairment in long term memory, which is a characteristic symptom of neurodegenerative disorders Masur et al. Furthermore, short and long term retrieval can be impaired independently from one another Della Sala et al.
The selective presentation of items during the SRT allows for the simultaneous evaluation of several components of memory. In addition to short and long term retrieval, it assesses total recall, long term storage, multiple choice recognition, delayed recall and whether retrieval from the long term memory is organized or not consistent long term retrieval.
It is further supported by its ability to differentiate between different types of neurodegenerative disorders Salmon et al. Because of its widespread use, different versions of the SRT have been developed.
Generally, memory declines with age, women outperform men and higher education is associated with better SRT performance. In addition, performance of men declines more rapidly with increasing age than performance of women and performance of individuals with lower education declines more rapidly compared to individuals that completed a college education Wiederholt et al. Similar effects of age, sex and education were found for other verbal memory measures including the AVLT e.
Miatton et al. The decrease in verbal memory performance with increasing age can be explained by the higher incidence of mild cognitive impairment and dementia in older adults aged over 60 e.
Lobo et al. Other explanations offered for age-associated memory decline include genetic contributions for a review see Small, , structural and functional brain changes e. Cabeza et al. For verbal memory specifically, age-related structural and functional brain changes include atrophy in the medial temporal lobe Pelletier et al. Lastly, age-related decline in other cognitive functions such as processing speed and executive functioning e. Similarly, various explanations are offered regarding sex differences in verbal memory performance.
Neurobiological explanations include differences in hormonal influences, brain anatomy and physiology Chen et al. Structural brain differences have also been suggested to explain the accelerated decline of memory performance in men compared to women. Gur and colleagues found increased and faster brain atrophy in older men compared to older women aged 55 and up. Furthermore, for men atrophy was dominant in the left hemisphere while for women atrophy was more symmetrical in both hemispheres.
Lastly, social explanations have been offered including difference in sociodemographic variables and health habits between men and women Jorm et al. This effect can be linked to the cognitive reserve theory. In the cognitive reserve theory, the brain is thought to use certain processes to actively cope with brain pathology in order to compensate for possible cognitive impairments Stern, ; Stern, One of the processes supporting this coping mechanism is education.
Other factors include socioeconomic status, intelligence, occupational attainment and mental stimulation which are associated with education Stern, The objectives of the current study are to provide normative data for the Flemish SRT, considering different demographic characteristics.
This will allow for the investigation of the effects of age, sex and education on verbal memory performance. Method Participants We recruited neurologically healthy volunteers men and women. To earn extra credits on their final examination, students each had to recruit two to three participants. Exclusion criteria for participants were a history of neurological, cardiovascular or psychiatric disease. All participants reported that Flemish was their dominant language.
The distribution of participants across the different demographic variables is presented in Table 1. Table 1 Distribution of participants across age category, sex and education level.
記憶障害のテスト：Buschke Selective Reminding Test（BSRT）
Select Page Selective Reminding Test The Selective Reminding Test measures memory performance and norms are provided based on a large group of healthy Flemish individuals. The effects of age, gender and education level on memory performance have been studied Huybrechts, S. All three demographic variables seem to have an important influence on all measures of the Selective Reminding Test. First, memory performance declines with increasing age. In addition men show a more rapid decline than women.
Buschke selective reminding test
E-mail address: moc. Accepted Jun Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.