All authors contributed equally to this work. Editor: Xinzhi Ni was editor of this paper. Received Jun 23; Accepted Jan 2. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Egg parasitoids of the corn leafhopper, Dalbulus maidis DeLong and Wolcott Hemiptera: Cicadellidae , were surveyed exposing sentinel eggs of the leafhopper along a latitudinal transect of km in Argentina, the southernmost area of its distribution range. Four parasitoid species were obtained: the mymarids Anagrus breviphragma Soyka Hymenoptera: Mymaridae , Anagrus flaveolus Waterhouse, and Polynema sp.
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Description[ edit ] P. The forewings are longer than the body. The hind tibiae possess multiple spines and a large movable spur. Increased levels of Nitrogen fertilizers in plant tissues result in shorter development times, more eggs produced, and increases in juvenile survival rates and adult body size. The second, macropterous, have fully developed wings and emerge when dispersal is required due to high population density or low quality host plants.
The purpose of the macropters is to disperse and lay eggs on corn seedlings, whereas the brachypters are to simply feed on the growing plant and reproduce. Once the plant starts to age, more macropters are produced and the cycle continues. Infestations will physically damage the host plant because the insect breaks through the vascular tissue with its tibia spur and feeds on the sap exuded. In addition to physical damage, P.
Peregrinus maidis reovirus PgMV from the family Reoviridae , is a non-pathogenic virus transmitted by the insect. Therefore, usually only adults are able to pass the infection onto a healthy plant. Macropterous adults dispersing to a new plant actively avoid plants that are showing symptoms of MMV infection. These adults demonstrate a preference for asymptomatic plants. They are most likely responding to a cue about the quality of the host plant.
The genetically modified corn had decreased infection and transmission of MMV, but did not affect the fitness of P.
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