Zukasa What are the three fundamental characteristics determine the effectiveness of the data communication system? These allow interoperability among unrelated answfrs system. A CRC checker functions exactly like a generator. The control data added to the beginning of a data is called headers. The specific responsibilities of network layer include the following: Write short notes on CRC generator. What are data grams?

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Explain cross talk and what is needed to reduce it? Effect of one wire on another is called as cross talk. One wire will be the sending antenna and the other wire will be the receiving antenna.

We can use the shielded twisted pair cable or coaxial cable for transmission, which contains metal foil to reduce cross talk.

What are the responsibilities of data link layer? Specific responsibilities of data link layer include the following. Mention the types of errorsE There are 2 types of errors a Single-bit error.

Define the following terms. What is redundancy? It is the error detecting mechanism, which means a shorter group of bits or extra bits may be appended at the destination of each unit. List out the available detection methods. There are 4 types of redundancy checks are used in data communication. Write short notes on VRC. The most common and least expensive mechanism for error detection is the vertical redundancy check VRC often called a parity check.

Write short notes on LRC. In longitudinal redundancy check LRC , a block of bits is divided into rows and a redundant row of bits is added to the whole block. Write short notes on CRC. The third and most powerful of the redundancy checking techniques is the cyclic redundancy checks CRC CRC is based on binary division. Here a sequence of redundant bits, called the CRC remainder is appended to the end of data unit.

Write short notes on CRC generator. A CRC generator uses a modulo-2 division. Write short notes on CRC checker. A CRC checker functions exactly like a generator. After receiving the data appended with the CRC it does the same modulo-2 division. Otherwise, the received stream of bits is discarded and the dates are resent. What are the steps followed in checksum generator? The sender follows these steps a The units are divided into k sections each of n bits. List out the steps followed is checksum checker side.

The receiver must follow these steps a The unit is divided into k section each of n bits. Write short notes on error correction. It is the mechanism to correct the errors and it can be handled in 2 ways. What is the purpose of hamming code? A hamming code can be designed to correct burst errors of certain lengths.

So the simple strategy used by the hamming code to correct single bit errors must be redesigned to be applicable for multiple bit correction. Define flow control. Flow control refers to a set of procedures used to restrict the amount of data. The sender can send before waiting for acknowledgment. What is a buffer? Each receiving device has a block of memory called a buffer, reserved for storing incoming data until they are processed. Mention the categories of flow control.

There are 2 methods have been developed to control flow of data across communication links. Mention the function of go-back N-ARQ. It is the popular mechanism for continuous transmission error control. In this method, if our frame is lost or damaged, all frames sent since the last frame acknowledged are retransmitted.

What is selective reject ARQ? In selective reject ARQ only the specific damaged or lost frame is retransmitted. If a frame is corrupted in transit, a NAK is returned and the frame is resent out of sequence. List the various ways of station configuration.

The stations are configured in 3 ways a Unbalanced configuration b Symmetrical configuration c Balanced configuration Mention the types of frames in HDLC.

There are 3 types of HDLC frames. Give the usage of I, S, U frames. I frames — used to transport user data and control information relating to user data. S frames — used only to transport control information, primarily data link layer and error controls. U frames — reserved for systems management.

Define LAN. A Local Area Network LAN is a data communication system that allows a number of independent devices to communicate directly with each other in a limited geographic areaE Define a standard Intel Corporation and Xerox.

Mention the different kinds of Ethernet networks. Write short notes on FDDI. Fiber distributed data interface is a local areas. It supports data rates of Mbps and provides a high-speed alternative to Ethernet and token ring access method used here is token passing.

Describe the three HDLC station types? Secondary station: The secondary station sends responses. Combined station: The combined station is one which acts either as a primary or a Secondary, depending upon the nature and direction of the transmission.

Combined station sends both commands and responses What is piggy backing? Piggy backing means combining data to sent and acknowledgement of the frame received in one single frame.

What are the network support layers and the user support layers? Network support layers: The network support layers are Physical layer, Data link layer and Network layer. These deals with electrical specifications, physical connection, transport timing and reliability.

User support layers: The user support layers are: Session layer, Presentation layer, Application layer. These allow interoperability among unrelated software system. What are the functions of LLC?

One set contains the end user portion of the HDLC frame — the logical address, control information, and data. These functions are handled by the IEEE What are the functions of MAC?

MAC sub layer resolves the contention for the shared media. It contains synchronization, flag, flow and error control specifications necessary to move information from one place to another, as well as the physical address of the next station to receive and route a packet.

What are headers and trailers and how do they get added and removed? The control data added to the beginning of a data is called headers. The control data added to the end of a data is called trailers. At the sending machine, when the message passes through the layers each layer adds the headers or trailers.

At the receiving machine, each layer removes the data meant for it and passes the rest to the next layer. What are the responsibilities of network layer?

The network layer is responsible for the source-to-destination delivery of packet across multiple network links. Raghavendra Reddy Malapati Page 8 6. What is a virtual circuit?

A logical circuit made between the sending and receiving computers. The connection is made after both computers do handshaking. After the connection, all packets follow the same route and arrive in sequence. What are data grams? In datagram approach, each packet is treated independently from all others. Even when one packet represents just a place of a multipacket transmission, the network treats it although it existed alone.

Packets in this technology are referred to as datagram. What are the two types of implementation formats in virtual circuits?

Virtual circuit transmission is implemented in 2 formats. What is meant by switched virtual circuit?


Computer networks 5th ND11 EC2352

Nikasa To introduce statistical modeling of telephone traffic. Verification of Maximum power transfer and reciprocity theorems. Presentations could be just a Minute JAM activity or an Extempore on simple topics or visuals could be provided and students could be asked to talk about it. Creation of 3-D models of simple objects and obtaining 2-D multi-view drawings from 3-D model. PLL characteristics and its use as Frequency Multiplier.




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