Its author, Aryabhata I c. Sarma in Part Nalayalam of the present series. Divide the divisor corresponding to the greater remainder by the divisor corresponding to the smaller remainder. Bhaskara IBr. This commentary has been edited by V.

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This mentioned year corresponds to CE, and implies that he was born in Chandra Hari has argued for the Kerala hypothesis on the basis of astronomical evidence. His major work, Aryabhatiya, a compendium of mathematics and astronomy, was extensively referred to in the Indian mathematical literature and has survived to modern times. The mathematical part of the Aryabhatiya covers arithmetic , algebra , plane trigonometry , and spherical trigonometry. It also contains continued fractions , quadratic equations , sums-of-power series, and a table of sines.

This work appears to be based on the older Surya Siddhanta and uses the midnight-day reckoning, as opposed to sunrise in Aryabhatiya. It claims that it is a translation by Aryabhata, but the Sanskrit name of this work is not known. The name "Aryabhatiya" is due to later commentators.

Aryabhata himself may not have given it a name. His disciple Bhaskara I calls it Ashmakatantra or the treatise from the Ashmaka. It is written in the very terse style typical of sutra literature, in which each line is an aid to memory for a complex system.

Thus, the explication of meaning is due to commentators. There is also a table of sines jya , given in a single verse. The duration of the planetary revolutions during a mahayuga is given as 4. Kalakriyapada 25 verses : different units of time and a method for determining the positions of planets for a given day, calculations concerning the intercalary month adhikamAsa , kShaya-tithis, and a seven-day week with names for the days of week.

In addition, some versions cite a few colophons added at the end, extolling the virtues of the work, etc. The Aryabhatiya presented a number of innovations in mathematics and astronomy in verse form, which were influential for many centuries. The extreme brevity of the text was elaborated in commentaries by his disciple Bhaskara I Bhashya, c.

The Aryabhatiya is also remarkable for its description of relativity of motion. He expressed this relativity thus: "Just as a man in a boat moving forward sees the stationary objects on the shore as moving backward, just so are the stationary stars seen by the people on earth as moving exactly towards the west. Continuing the Sanskritic tradition from Vedic times , he used letters of the alphabet to denote numbers, expressing quantities, such as the table of sines in a mnemonic form.

By this rule the circumference of a circle with a diameter of 20, can be approached. For simplicity, people started calling it jya. When Arabic writers translated his works from Sanskrit into Arabic, they referred it as jiba. However, in Arabic writings, vowels are omitted, and it was abbreviated as jb.

Later writers substituted it with jaib, meaning "pocket" or "fold in a garment ". In Arabic, jiba is a meaningless word. Later in the 12th century, when Gherardo of Cremona translated these writings from Arabic into Latin, he replaced the Arabic jaib with its Latin counterpart, sinus, which means "cove" or "bay"; thence comes the English word sine.

This problem was also studied in ancient Chinese mathematics, and its solution is usually referred to as the Chinese remainder theorem. It turns out that the smallest value for N is In general, diophantine equations, such as this, can be notoriously difficult.



He is also known as Aryabhata I or Aryabhata the Elder to distinguish him from a 10th-century Indian mathematician of the same name. He flourished in Kusumapura—near Patalipurta Patna , then the capital of the Gupta dynasty —where he composed at least two works, Aryabhatiya c. Top Questions How did Aryabhata become famous? Aryabhata became famous as a mathematician and astronomer.


Shakabar aryabhatiya malayalam pdf book The Karayta-ratna of Deva A. It is based on the assumption of epicycles and eccenters, so it is not heliocentric, but my hypothesis is that it was based on aryabjatiya originally heliocentric theory. The Almagest of Ptolemy, translated by R. Old, damaged and brittle. This is also the remainder corresponding to the divisor equal to the product of the two divisors. Bhaskara I has prescribed the following rule. For details see Kalakriya-pada, vss.


The commentators Bhaskara I, Suryadeva and others have also interpreted vss. All commentators agree with Paramesvara. Its contents xxiii 2. The remainder being zero, the square root is qryabhatiya. The duration of the planetary revolutions during a mahayuga is given as 4. The commen- tator Raghunatha-raja A. This is the sixth Rsine.

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