Early history[ edit ] Bloodstain pattern analysis has been used informally for centuries, but the first modern study of blood stains was in Kirk , a professor of biochemistry and criminalistics. MacDonell researched bloodstains with a grant from the United States Department of Justice , and which also published his research in the book "Flight Characteristics and Stain Patterns of Human Blood" MacDonell taught workshops on how to conduct bloodstain analysis, and the newly trained bloodstain analysts, who often had received as little as 40 hours of instruction, in turn would give expert testimony in court cases. The paper also proposed fluid dynamics as a theoretical framework for solving these problems, and Attinger has continued to publish several papers exploring these concepts as have other scientists as well. Bloodstain pattern analysis often uses extensive forensic photography in order to provide evidence for conclusions.

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Monday, June 13, Their phones ring in the middle of the night. Shortly before A. On call for the entire weekend but not summoned until now, both men are ordered to report to the scene of a double murder at South Bundy. During these brief conversations, Rogers tells both detectives that one of the victims might be the wife of football legend O.

To Lange and Vannatter, it is just another murder investigation, just another job. Gartland, a thirty-nine-year veteran of the LAPD.

The Homicide Special Section, which consists of only a dozen investigators, usually gets the call when a high-profile murder is committed or when the investigation crosses divisional boundaries within the LAPD.

To many in the Los Angeles law-enforcement community, Homicide Special detectives walk on water. Six-feet-tall and built tough and wiry like a soccer player, the forty-nine-year-old soft-spoken Lange, mustachioed and balding, springs out of bed and jumps into the shower.

Dressing quickly and finding his wire-rimmed glasses, he returns to his bedroom and kisses Linda, his wife of fifteen years, who still cannot get used to these middle-of-the-night assignments that potentially place her husband at risk. Hastening out of his home in Ventura County, Lange grabs an apple to eat during his forty-five-minute drive to Los Angeles. Meantime, about twenty-five miles northeast in Valencia, a small valley community in northwestern Los Angeles County, the fifty-three-year-old Vannatter, a usually-gregarious six-foot-one bear of a man with a full head of silver-and-gold hair, sits on the side of his bed.

His wry sense of humor is well-hidden this morning. He rubs his tanned face, weather-beaten from years in the sun.

At the moment, he lacks any degree of enthusiasm for rushing out to another murder site. Vannatter and his wife of twenty-nine years, Rita, had hoped to retire a year ago. Just last night, during a quiet dinner with Rita at a local Italian restaurant, Vannatter had let out his feelings about his situation, expressing both anger and frustration at his inability to retire and to improve their quality of life.

Recently a grandfather for the first time, the aging but rugged detective has seen enough slaughtered bodies and bloody crime scenes. He wants relief from his long time mind-set of viewing murder victims as evidence instead of human tragedy. He just wants out. But, shrugging off his personal concerns, Vannatter lumbers into the bathroom to clean up. A stylish but conservative dresser, Vannatter picks out a gray pin-striped suit from his closet.

Passing on breakfast this particular morning, he goes straight to his gray LAPD-issued, Buick Regal and finds his way to the South Bundy address, an off-white stucco, three-level condominium with light-beige trim. Getting out of his car, Vannatter notices that the inner block around the location has already been cordoned off with the standard bright-yellow police tape; uniformed patrol officers are posted around the perimeter.

He walks up to Officer Miguel Terrazas, the patrol officer handling the crime scene log, and reports in at A. Their handshake symbolizes the transfer of this murder investigation from the West L. Division to Homicide Special. Phillips explains that Terrazas, along with his partner, Robert Riske, were the first cops to arrive at A.

While responding to a possible burglary across the street from the crime scene, the officers met a young married couple, Sukru Boztepe and Bettina Rasmussen. The couple had followed a white Akita with bloody paws back to its home where they found the body of a blood-covered woman lying on a walkway.

The neighbor believed that someone was trying to break into her house, so she called to report a possible burglary. Riske and Terrazas immediately called for paramedics and other backup police units. There was none. Riske did not bother to check the female victim.

He could see that her head was nearly severed from her body. Riske and Terrazas radioed for back-up. A few minutes later, two other patrol officers, Edward McGowan and Richard Walley, as well as their sergeant, Martin Coon, arrived to help Riske and Terrazas secure the location and block traffic on South Bundy, which usually remained busy even late at night.

At A. Seeing that the situation for the two victims was hopeless, the paramedics conducted no emergency lifesaving procedures and allowed the bodies to remain where they fell.

During the briefing, Phillips tells Vannatter that Riske and Terrazas had noticed a bloody left-hand glove near the body of the male victim. They did not see its matching right-hand glove in the area. Riske and another patrol officer had gone to the front door of the residence, which was nearly wide open.

Above the door a porch light, turned on, revealed a set of bloody shoe prints moving away from the two bodies, toward the back alley, and through a rear gate--which also had blood transfers, conveyed from one surface to another. After going door-to-door and talking to neighbors, the officers tentatively identified the dead woman as Nicole Brown, who the neighbors said was the ex-wife of O.

Her "official" identification would not come until later when Lange and Vannatter conduct their detailed crime-scene search.

They concluded that the attractive blonde woman in many of the photographs was most likely the slaughtered Nicole Brown now lying outside on the walkway.

A large knife was on the countertop of the stove in the kitchen. He feared that his radio would be monitored by reporters. Instinctively, he knew that this murder case would be big news, and he wanted the LAPD to have a jump on the media. Upstairs, the patrol officers found two young children asleep in their rooms with their doors half opened. They had apparently slept through the brutal murder of their mother. Getting them up and dressed, the officers took them out the back door, avoiding the bloody scene in front, and arranged for them to be taken to the West Los Angeles Division until they could be positively identified and a member of their family located.

Everyone was to enter the residence through the garage in the rear. Remember that when a body or an article has been moved, it can never be restored to its original position. The two of them had performed a "visual inventory" of the crime scene. According to the official sign-in sheet, Phillips and Fuhrman were the sixteenth and seventeenth police personnel to log in.

During the prior two-hour period, a captain, three sergeants, and eleven patrol officers were listed on the sign-in sheet. Phillips passed the word to his investigators, including Fuhrman, who had only begun to take some notes on his general observations.

Other than the initial officers who had secured the crime scene, no one--not even Detectives Phillips, Fuhrman, or Roberts--had come near either the bodies or the evidence. The only exception is to make a determination as to whether a person is alive or dead. In this case, that has already been done. Also, standard operating procedure dictates that no one may touch any evidence at a crime scene until a criminalist from the police crime lab or the concerned investigator is present to document and collect it.

However, until Homicide Special arrived, Rokahr had to limit his photography to panoramic or establishing shots. He could not take close-up pictures of the bodies and evidence until the lead detective or SID criminalist was present to direct him. He had left those chores to the lead investigators, the boys from Homicide Special. After this quick briefing of what had occurred since A. In the routine division of labor developed during their hundreds of homicide investigations, Lange generally handles the crime-scene search in the wake of a murder; Vannatter makes the calls and gets the witnesses.

Vannatter hopes to pick up some leads during his tour with Phillips. Then, Phillips takes Vannatter under the yellow tape. Peering through the darkness, Phillips points to a location by the front gate of the residence. As they focus their flashlight beams, the two bodies are illuminated, lying crumpled on the ground and covered in blood. Without touching the bodies, Vannatter and Phillips cannot be absolutely sure of the cause of death.

Neither man gets within six feet of the two dead bodies or the physical evidence surrounding them. However, they can see from the wounds that the killer or killers had apparently stabbed and slashed them with a knife. Nicole Brown is dressed in a short black cocktail dress and black-lace panties. The dead man--dressed in blue jeans, a light brown shirt, and cream-colored cloth boots--remains unidentified.

It is unclear whether one of the victims or both had been the chief target. Now, almost four hours after the first officers arrived, no one has seen its right-hand match. Vannatter, the twenty-sixth person on the log, knows that everything he is seeing are pieces of a jigsaw puzzle that they will begin to fit together after Lange arrives. Entering the house through the safe route, Phillips and Vannatter begin their brief walk-through, touching nothing.

After the tour through the residence, they stand at the front door and look out at the walkway where Phillips shows Vannatter the trail of bloody shoe prints, apparently made by one killer as he exited away from the bodies. To the left of these shoe prints, they see five drops of blood--tailing west, away from the murder site, and out to the back alley. Since the house appears undisturbed and the bloody shoe prints go past the front door, Vannatter and Phillips believe that the killer or killers never entered the residence.

He should be here any time now. Fuhrman, saying nothing, nods and shakes hands with the detective. He sees his boss, Lieutenant Rogers, and the two of them walk over to Vannatter, Phillips, and Fuhrman. Like Vannatter, Lange has never met the other two detectives before. Bushey also wants the detectives to help Simpson get his children from the police station.

A few minutes later, Lange and Phillips return to Vannatter and Rogers, who, along with Fuhrman, are now standing near the northeastern corner of South Bundy and Dorothy under a street light.

Lange is still wincing a bit from his view of the two slaughtered bodies. These people were mutilated and stabbed. They were beaten. Just look at their slashed throats. Phil, this is a rage killing. Neither Lange nor Vannatter had originally given much thought to becoming police officers. As a young teenager, Lange was a runaway in the San Fernando Valley and was detained twice by police for minor infractions.

However, Lange straightened out, somewhat, while attending a strict Catholic school. Unlike many children of the s, Lange expressed his rebellion by joining the U. Marines and going to Vietnam in June


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