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Palestine 10th, possibly 11th C. It is considered the best manuscript and forms the base text of all critical editions. Vocalization is by a different, later hand. Parma Biblioteca Palatina ms. Vaticanus 31, securely dated to The Parma ms. Text is closest to the Mishnah quotations given in the Leiden Palestinian Talmud. Parma B North Africa th C. Toharot only. Unlike all of the above mss.
Yemenite ms. Yemen th C. Nezikin to Toharot. The consonant text is dependent on early printed editions. The value of this ms. There have been many subsequent editions, including the late 19th century Vilna edition, which is the basis of the editions now used by the religious public.
Vocalized editions were published in Italy, culminating in the edition of David ben Solomon Altaras , publ. Venice The Altaras edition was republished in Mantua in , in Pisa in and and in Livorno in many editions from until reprints of the vocalized Livorno editions were published in Israel in , , and These editions show some textual variants by bracketing doubtful words and passages, though they do not attempt detailed textual criticism.
The Livorno editions are the basis of the Sephardic tradition for recitation. As well as being printed on its own, the Mishnah is included in all editions of the Babylonian and Jerusalem Talmuds. Each paragraph is printed on its own, and followed by the relevant Gemara discussion. However, that discussion itself often cites the Mishnah line by line. While the text printed in paragraph form has generally been standardized to follow the Vilna edition, the text cited line by line in the Gemara often preserves important variants, which sometimes reflect the readings of older manuscripts.
The nearest approach to a critical edition is that of Hanoch Albeck. Oral traditions and pronunciation[ edit ] A traditional setting of the last passage of the first tractate, Berakhot , which describes how scholars of the Talmud create peace in the world.
Problems playing this file? See media help. The Mishnah was and still is traditionally studied through recitation out loud. Jewish communities around the world preserved local melodies for chanting the Mishnah, and distinctive ways of pronouncing its words. Many medieval manuscripts of the Mishnah are vowelized, and some of these, especially some fragments found in the Genizah , are partially annotated with Tiberian cantillation marks.
Otherwise, there is often a customary intonation used in the study of Mishnah or Talmud, somewhat similar to an Arabic mawwal , but this is not reduced to a precise system like that for the Biblical books. In some traditions this intonation is the same as or similar to that used for the Passover Haggadah. Recordings have been made for Israeli national archives, and Frank Alvarez-Pereyre has published a book-length study of the Syrian tradition of Mishnah reading on the basis of these recordings.
Most vowelized editions of the Mishnah today reflect standard Ashkenazic vowelization, and often contain mistakes. The Albeck edition of the Mishnah was vowelized by Hanokh Yalon, who made careful eclectic use of both medieval manuscripts and current oral traditions of pronunciation from Jewish communities all over the world.
The Albeck edition includes an introduction by Yalon detailing his eclectic method. Two institutes at the Hebrew University in Jerusalem have collected major oral archives which hold among other things extensive recordings of Jews chanting the Mishnah using a variety of melodies and many different kinds of pronunciation.
See below for external links. The reason that the Talmud is not usually viewed as a commentary on the Mishnah, is because it also has many other goals, and can get involved in long tangential discussions. However, the main purpose of the Talmud is as a commentary on the Mishnah. It was written in Arabic using Hebrew letters what is termed Judeo-Arabic and was one of the first commentaries of its kind. In it, Rambam condensed the associated Talmudical debates , and offered his conclusions in a number of undecided issues.
Of particular significance are the various introductory sections — as well as the introduction to the work itself  — these are widely quoted in other works on the Mishnah, and on the Oral law in general. Perhaps the most famous is his introduction to the tenth chapter of tractate Sanhedrin  where he enumerates the thirteen fundamental beliefs of Judaism.
Rabbi Samson of Sens France was, apart from Maimonides, one of the few rabbis of the early medieval era to compose a Mishnah commentary on some tractates. It is printed in many editions of the Mishnah. It is interwoven with his commentary on major parts of the Tosefta. The glosses are sometimes quite detailed and analytic. That is why it is sometimes compared to the Tosafot — discussions of Babylonian gemara by French and German scholars of the 12th—13th centuries.
In many compact Mishnah printings, a condensed version of his commentary, titled Ikar Tosafot Yom Tov, is featured. This relatively unheard-of commentary was first printed in Israel in It is subdivided into two parts, one more general and the other more analytical, titled Yachin and Boaz respectively after two large pillars in the Temple in Jerusalem.
Although Rabbi Lipschutz has faced some controversy in certain Hasidic circles, he was greatly respected by such sages as Rabbi Akiva Eiger , whom he frequently cites, and is widely accepted in the Yeshiva world. The Tiferet Yaakov is an important gloss on the Tiferet Yisrael.
The commentary by Rabbi Pinhas Kehati , which is written in Modern Israeli Hebrew and based on classical and contemporary works, has become popular in the late 20th century. The commentary is designed to make the Mishnah accessible to a wide readership. Each tractate is introduced with an overview of its contents, including historical and legal background material, and each Mishnah is prefaced by a thematic introduction. The commentary appears for the entire text except for Tohorot and Kodashim.
As a historical source[ edit ] Both the Mishnah and Talmud contain little serious biographical studies of the people discussed therein, and the same tractate will conflate the points of view of many different people. Yet, sketchy biographies of the Mishnaic sages can often be constructed with historical detail from Talmudic and Midrashic sources.
According to the Encyclopaedia Judaica Second Edition , it is accepted that Judah the Prince added, deleted, and rewrote his source material during the process of redacting the Mishnah. Modern authors who have provided examples of these changes include J.
Epstein and S. The Mishnah used in the Babylonian rabbinic community differing markedly from that used in the Palestinian one. Indeed within these rabbinic communities themselves there are indications of different versions being used for study. These differences are shown in divergent citations of individual Mishnah passages in the Talmud Yerushalmi and the Talmud Bavli, and in variances of medieval manuscripts and early editions of the Mishnah.
The best known examples of these differences is found in J. These lessened over time, as the text of the Mishnah became more and more regarded as authoritative. Are Mishnaic disputes distinguishable along theological or communal lines, and in what ways do different sections derive from different schools of thought within early Judaism?
Can these early sources be identified, and if so, how? In response to these questions, modern scholars have adopted a number of different approaches. Some scholars hold that there has been extensive editorial reshaping of the stories and statements within the Mishnah and later, in the Talmud. Lacking outside confirming texts, they hold that we cannot confirm the origin or date of most statements and laws, and that we can say little for certain about their authorship.
In this view, the questions above are impossible to answer. See, for example, the works of Louis Jacobs , Baruch M. Bokser, Shaye J. Cohen , Steven D. Some scholars hold that the Mishnah and Talmud have been extensively shaped by later editorial redaction, but that it contains sources which we can identify and describe with some level of reliability.
In this view, sources can be identified to some extent because each era of history and each distinct geographical region has its own unique feature, which one can trace and analyze. Thus, the questions above may be analyzed. Kraemer and Robert Goldenberg. Some scholars hold that many or most of the statements and events described in the Mishnah and Talmud usually occurred more or less as described, and that they can be used as serious sources of historical study.
In this view, historians do their best to tease out later editorial additions itself a very difficult task and skeptically view accounts of miracles, leaving behind a reliable historical text.
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Palestine 10th, possibly 11th C. It is considered the best manuscript and forms the base text of all critical editions. Vocalization is by a different, later hand. Parma Biblioteca Palatina ms. Vaticanus 31, securely dated to The Parma ms. Text is closest to the Mishnah quotations given in the Leiden Palestinian Talmud. Parma B North Africa th C.
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